Weather and climate impacts are often felt locally even though they may be caused by remote drivers operating across a wide range of spatial and temporal scales. The Stratosphere and Climate group currently explores these teleconnections in the context of modes of variability such as the quasi-biennial oscillation (QBO) in the tropics and the polar vortex, including those phenomena driving them (e.g. small-scale gravity waves and Rossby waves). The student will be encouraged to explore how well-known modes of tropospheric weather and climate, such as the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO), El Nino and the Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO) impact and are influenced by phenomena, processes and pathways operating within the upper atmosphere. The student may like to pursue innovative and robust methods for diagnosing coupling in observations and climate models, ranging from multi-linear regression to more specialised techniques including Networks (e.g. Causal Effects Networks, Complex Networks etc) and synchronisation metrics.